Which receptor is more prevalent in the human central nervous system – the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) or the μ-opioid receptor?
It was only in 1990 that researchers mapped the locations of the CB1 receptors and determined that the CB1 receptor is very highly expressed throughout the brain. In humans, the CB1 receptor is 10 times more prevalent in the central nervous system, as compared to the μ-opioid receptor.
Burns HD, Van Laere K, Sanabria-Bohorquez S, et al. [18F]MK-9470, a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for in vivo human PET brain imaging of the cannabinoid-1 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007;104:9800–9805. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17535893/
True or false? The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is primarily immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory.
True. CB2 receptors are expressed on the cell membranes of B cells, T cells and macrophages. When signaled, CB2 receptors are generally inhibitory to immune cell activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production is inhibited. Expression of CB2 receptors is inducible, and the number of receptors is increased by inflammation.
Maresz K, Carrier EJ, Ponomarev ED, Hillard CJ, and Dittel BN. Modulation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in microglial cells in response to inflammatory stimuli. J Neurochem, 2005; 95(2): 437-45. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16086683/
Actually, no. Cannabis is a flowering plant, while marijuana is defined as a substance composed of parts of the Cannabis sativa plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, and the resin extracted from any part of the plant.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an internal homeostatic system present in all vertebrates that plays a critical role in the nervous system and regulates multiple physiological processes, including appetite, digestion, mood, coordination, and other processes. The ECS also influences immunomodulation, cardiovascular functions, sensory integration, tumor surveillance, fertility, bone physiology, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neural development, and intraocular pressure.
Di Marzo V. The endocannabinoid system: its general strategy of action, tools for its pharmacological manipulation and potential therapeutic exploitation. Pharmacological Research. 2009; 60(2):77–84. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19559360/
True or false? Patients who are allergic to cherries, tangerines, peaches, tomatoes, hazelnuts, latex and/or tobacco may also be allergic to cannabis products.
True. These listed fruits and vegetables have non-specific lipid proteins that are similar to the ones found in cannabis. As a result, cross-sensitivity may occur, and a patient may develop an allergic reaction.
Bih CI, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ. Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutic. Oct 2015; 12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. PMID: 26264914; PMCID: PMC4604182. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26264914/